Americae Pars Sexta Sive
This introduces the sixth part of de Bry’s Grands Voyages which illustrates the conquest of the Incas. Also illustrated is the on-going rivalry between the Pizarrists and Almagrists, and the attempts by the Spanish Crown to restore order in Peru, which continued for many years after the conquest. The scenes surrounding the title panel show Indians mining for gold and below, the Inca king, Atahualpa adorned with jewellery and holding a golden sceptre, is being carried on a litter to meet Pizarro at Cajamarca.
Title Page (20.9×29.0) from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $150view print
 Map: ‘Americae Pars Magis Cognita’
The origin of the cartography for this map is uncertain, although it bears some similarity to Ortelius’s map ‘Americae sive Novi Orbis’ (ref. 40), first published twenty-two years earlier. The Chilean bulge is a little less pronounced but the East Coast and the major river systems are very similar. The Central American section and the West Indies are very different and the Florida peninsula bears the distinctive shape as le Moyne’s map (see: ), published by de Bry the pervious year. All the embellishments are also clearly de Bry’s and serve to make this one of the most decorative maps of the area ever published.
Map (36.5×44.0), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, and in 1593 with German text. (There is a second state of this map dated 1624, which probably did not appear until 1629 in the third issue of Part III(g), with Latin text only. It is easily recognised by the additional engravings of oval plans in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean areas, entitled respectively: ‘Mexico’ and ‘Phernambuco’. Also sea battles have been added off the coasts of Peru and Brazil): N/Aview print
 How the Indians cross rivers
The Indians of Peru had strange ways of crossing rivers. They tied a rope between two poles on either side of a river, then they hung a large basket from this rope and whomsoever wanted to cross sat in the basket and was pulled across. Others crossed rivers by sitting astride a bundle of reeds and punting across with two wooden poles. Yet another method, suitable for transporting heavy cargoes, was to make a raft out of dried pumpkins and row across.
Plate 2 (14.2×18.1), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text, also in 1602 with Latin text: $100view print
 The bridge of Huaynacapaco
Much of Ecuador was ruled from Quito by the Inca king, Huayna-Capac. In order to quell the Indians on the other side of the River Chiouo (Guayas?) they had to build a rope bridge at Huaynacapaco. While they were crossing it, though, the local Indians cut the bridge on both sides and most of Huayna-Capac’s men were drowned. (There is a bridge with this name at Vilcabamba in Peru but Smyth’s edited version of Benzoni suggests the bridge crossed the Guayas.).
Plate 25 (17.0×20.2), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100view print
 How the Inca nobility are buried
The funeral of an Inca king was a ceremony of great splendour. After digging a large pit, the Indians would decorate the corpse with gold and silver, then bury it with many fine ornaments, along with good food and wine to help it on its way into the next world. Benzoni so described the burial of Huayna-Capac, whose grave he said was on the border of the province of Quito. When the Spanish first went to Peru, they discovered and pillaged many such graves.
Plate 26 (16.0×19.0), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 How the Incas wrought their gold
The goldsmiths of Huayna-Capac were master craftsmen who wrought gold into magnificent artefacts with the simplest of tools. They used clay furnaces, heated by coals and blown by many men using tubes, rather than bellows. When the gold was molten it was poured into ingots and wrought into all kinds of ornamental objects, including plants, birds, fish and animals. It was said that the emperor had great feasts on the island of San Lorenzo, near Lima, with life-sized gold artefacts decorating the banquets.
Plate 27 (15.5×18.7), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 How the Indians mined silver at Potosí
The mountain shown here is probably the Cerro Rico, which stand above the city of Potosí and has the distinction of being the richest mountain in all the Americas. The Indians, who had a day and a night shift, hacked the ore out of the rock. They worked about a hundred and fifty fathoms down and carried the heavy ore out of the mountain by a series of double-sided ladders, made from ox-hide and poles, so the men could go down on one side and up on the other. They carried lights, tied to their thumbs and rested at intervals on ledges.
Plate 3 (14.7×18.7), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text, also Plate 12 in 1602 with Latin text: $250view print
 The strange sheep-like creatures that carried the silver ore
When the Spanish discovered the silver mines of Potosí, they organised the transporting of the rich ore, westward by llama trains, across the Altiplano and down to Arica on the coast, to be transported by ship to Panama. These creatures would sit down when angered or overburdened and, neither beatings nor kind words would make the animals get up again. If any of them ran away, they had to be shot to recover their valuable cargo.
Plate 4 (14.3×18.1), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text, also Plate 12 in 1602 with Latin text: $250 view print
 Map: ‘Descripcion del Destieto del Audiencia de Lima’
The region covered by this map roughly corresponds to the whole of present-day Peru. Cajamarca, here called Caxamalca, where Atahualpa was captured by Pizarro (see  below) is marked to the north, and Ayacucho, unnamed but at Guamanga, near Cuzco to the south-east, was the location of further bloodshed in the early history of the conquest of the Incas.
Map 11 (15.8×22.6), from Part XII(g), first published in 1623 with German text and in 1624 with Latin text: N/A
 Pizarro reaches the coast of Peru
In 1528 Pizarro set out on a voyage of true exploration in search of the civilization and riches of Peru, about which he had heard so much from the Indians of Panama. When his ship entered the Gulf of Guayaquil and his men went ashore, they were confronted by crowds of Indians. A bearded Greek, named Pedro de Candía, with sword in hand, marched boldly up the shore. His beard astonished the natives and they stepped aside to let him through. Later the Spanish were shown the town of Tumbez, which they immediately knew indicated a sophisticated society. Pizarro was friendly, however, and gave no indication of his exploitative intentions
Plate 2 (16.0×19.6), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 De Soto meets the Inca king near Cajamarca
When the Spanish arrived in Cajamarca they found only a few inhabitants. The Inca army was camped in the surrounding hills and the residence of the Inca king, Atahualpa, was a few miles away, so de Soto went ahead to meet him and to announce the arrival in the town of Pizarro and his troops. As de Soto approached, he pulled his stallion to a halt in front of Atahualpa and the foam from the horses mouth was said to have flown in the face of the Inca king. Many of the nobles who had never seen a horse before were horrified and recoiled in terror but their leader remained impassive. De Soto then delivered a speech requesting Atahualpa to come to the town to meet Pizarro but the Inca king did not answer.
Plate 5 (15.6×18.3), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 The Inca King goes to meet Pizarro
As Pizarro prepared his small force of about 150 soldiers for battle, Atahualpa was carried into the town accompanied by about 15,000 Indians (de Bry says 25,000). He sat on a velvet-cushioned chair coloured with parrot feathers and the bejewelled litter he was carried on was said to be decorated with gold and silver. Unaware of the impending danger, the procession moved slowly into the centre of the town until it was practically full of Indians but none of the Spanish soldiers was visible. Atahualpa asked Pizarro’s small entourage where all his troops were, believing perhaps they must have been too frightened to show themselves.
Plate 6 (15.6×18.7), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $150 view print
 Atahualpa is captured by the Spanish
Accompanying Pizarro was a monk called Valverde, who confronted Atahualpa with a crucifix and breviary. The interpreter said the Spanish had been sent by their emperor to tell them about the teachings of God. When Atahualpa asked how they knew what these teaching were, Valverde replied that the book spoke of such things. The Inca king took the book and, after turning the pages slowly, threw it on the ground, saying it did not speak of anything. At that point Pizarro’s cannons fired and his horsemen charged into the crowds. The Indians were thrown into confusion and panicked, not knowing which way to turn. Many were slaughtered, while Atahualpa himself was thrown from his litter and taken prisoner.
Plate 7 (15.6×18.7), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $150 view print
 The Inca King is ransomed
The Spanish found signs of great wealth near Cajamarca, including a crockery set made of gold weighing about two hundred pounds. While Atahualpa was held captive, he soon realised how much the Spanish valued the yellow metal and said, in exchange for his own life, he would instruct his subjects to collect together enough gold artefacts to fill the room in which he was held prisoner. The room was said to measure about 22 feet by 17 feet and should be filled to the height of about 8 feet. Pizarro could hardly believe his luck and agreed to spare Atahualpa’s life in return for the ransom.
Plate 9 (16.8×20.0), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 The Incas begin collecting gold artefacts
Word spread throughout the empire that gold and silver artefacts were to be brought to Cajamarca to pay the king’s ransom. The more the Indians brought, the more the Spanish broke them up and melted them down, in order to pack more into the room. Then the Spanish began complaining that they wanted more gold and it was not coming in fast enough, so Atahualpa told them about the Temple of Coricancha at the Inca capital, Cuzco, whose entire roof was covered with gold tiles. The Spanish knew nothing of this city so the Indians were obliged to guide them there.
Plate 10 (15.5×18.5), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 Atahualpa is garrotted
While Atahualpa was still held captive rumours spread that the Indians were planning a counter attack. De Soto tried to find out if there was any truth in them and, although no evidence was found, the rumours persisted. Almagro persuaded Pizarro that, without a leader the Incas were ineffectual and, in order that they remain so, Atahualpa should be killed. In 1533, on a trumped-up charge of conspiracy, the Inca king was found guilty and sentenced to death by strangulation. Negro slaves who were working for the Spanish, acted as executioners.
Plate 11 (16.9×20.0), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 The Spanish take over Cuzco
After Atahualpa was killed, Pizarro set out with his troops to find the city of Cuzco, which he had heard was so rich in gold. The journey from Cajamarca to Cuzco by road was nearly a thousand miles and took three months. Although there was considerable resistance to the Spanish during this long march, the final descent, in November 1533 into the great city, was in fact not as portrayed here but a relatively peaceful affair.
Plate 12 (16.9×20.1), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 Bird’s-eye-view of the City of Cuzco
The city of Cuzco was the southern capital of the Inca Empire (the northern capital being Quito). After their long march from Cajamarca, Pizarro and his men were overwhelmed by what they saw when they entered the city. The tapering walls were cut from huge, perfectly interlocking blocks of stones and the narrow flagged streets were drained clean by flowing streams. The plaza in front of the Temple of the Sun was where all the most important Inca ceremonies and festivals were held. This engraving is derived from one by Braun and Hogenberg (ref. 8) but with de Bry’s own figurative embellishments and ornate title cartouche added in the foreground.
Plan (at Ar. Plate 18/19) (28.6×40.3), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text and (at Ar. Plate 15/16) in 1597 with German text, also from Part XII(g) with German text only (at Page 98/9) in 1623: $450 view print
 The Incas lay siege to Cuzco
Atahualpa’s brother, Manco, organised a long and bloody siege to reoccupy the Inca capital, which eventually spread to open rebellion throughout the land. Pizarro, who by this time was in Lima, sent a Spanish army of 500 men to support his over-stretched forces in Cuzco. Under the command of Almagro and Gómez de Tordoya, an enormous battle with the Incas took place near the capital city, which was eventually won by the Spanish.
Plate 13 (16.7×19.9), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $150 view print
 Indian women are raped by the Spanish
After the defeat of the Inca king, some of the Spanish went on the rampage. When they found some women bathing in a pool near the town of Cajamarca, the prettiest were seized upon and taken away to be raped. (Some writers suggest as many as 5,000 Indian women were raped by the Spanish during the conquest of the Incas.)
Plate 8 (16.7×19.8), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 Diego de Almagro is killed
Almagro returned to Cuzco, disillusioned and embittered from his long and fruitless journey south into Chile, where he had been searching for further wealth. This led to a split in the control of Peru between the Pizarrists, who held the coastal regions, and the Almagrists who held the Cordillera. Further quarrelling culminated in a battle just outside Cuzco in 1538, known as Las Salinas, which the Pizarrists won. Almagro was subsequently garrotted and his captain, Orgóñez, beheaded.
Plate 14 (16.0×18.7), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 Francisco Pizarro is killed
Almagro’s son planned to take revenge on Pizarro for his father’s death. In 1541, with the help of Juan de Herrada and other Almagro supporters, they besieged Pizzaro’s residence in Lima. When Francisco Pizarro was killed by a swordsman, Almagro the younger was immediately proclaimed, by his supporters, the new governor of all Peru. However, now that both the original rival conquistadors were dead, it only aggravated the onset of a civil war that had been brewing for a long time.
Plate 15 (15.6×18.3), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 The bloody battle at Chupas
Even before Pizarro’s death, a new royal governor, Vaca de Castro, was on his way to settle the turmoil in Peru. He refused to accept Almagro the younger, when he heard he had appointed himself the new governor and summand his troops for battle. They were later joined by Alonso de Alvarado and by other Pizarrists. This culminated in a bloody battle at Chupas in 1542, near the city of Ayacucho. Many men on both sides died, before Almagro the younger, fled to Cuzco. He was pursued up into the mountains and eventually caught and beheaded.
Plate 16 (15.3×18.5), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 The royal governor of Peru is installed
Life under the new governor, Vaca de Castro, was no more stable than before and the king of Spain was eventually forced to send out yet another governor to replace him. His name was Blanco Núñez Vela and, when he took over the governorship, he introduced a new set of laws designed to establish order throughout the land. The new governor, however, acted like a dictator by imprisoning his predecessor and imposing harsh punishments on anyone who objected to this new regime. When a spokesman for the people of Lima complained, the new viceroy stabbed him to death and imposed yet further retribution.
Plate 17 (15.5×18.7), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 The royal governor is sent home
The procurator’s stabbing caused so much resentment among the people of Lima that the new governor, Blanco Núñez Vela, eventually decided he would be safer to transfer his offices to Trujillo, three hundred miles to the north. His advisors, however, refused to go with him and Gonzalo Pizarro, the last of the four Pizarro brothers, led a revolt against the governor by storming his palace and taking him prisoner. Then in 1544, after sending him rather unceremoniously back to Spain, he assumed governorship himself.
Plate 18 (15.7×18.8), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 A vendetta against the last of the four Pizarro brothers
The self-appointed governor of Peru, Gonzalo Pizarro, turned out to be no less harsh than his predecessor so in 1546, when the king of Spain appointed yet another viceroy to take over, it was not difficult for him to gain support from the colonists as he travelled southwards from Panama. His name was Pedro de la Gasca, and one of his first victims was Pedro de Puelles (left), whom Pizarro had appointed governor of Quito.
Plate 19 (15.7×18.9), form Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 Map: ‘Descripcion del Audiencia del Quito’
This simple outline map covers the whole of present-day Ecuador, along with part of Colombia to the north, including the town of Popayan. Paita, where Spilberben’s fleet attacked (see below: ) is marked on the coast, and the strategically important town of Guayaquil, which l’Hermite’s fleet attacked (see below: ). Since the conquest, most of the Spanish came and went via the town of Guayaquil.
Map 10 (15.9×19.3), from Part XII(g), first published in 1623 with German text and in 1624 with Latin text: N/A
 How the load-bearers were punished
As Pedro de la Gasca advanced from the north with about 1,500 soldiers, the journey from Trujillo to Ayacucho up the Eastern Cordillera was a terrible experience for the Indian load-bearers. Those who died of thirst and exhaustion along the way were simply beheaded to avoid the bother of unchaining them. Others had an ear, arm or leg severed as a punishment for slacking. They were then often left by the wayside to perish.
Plate 20 (15.5×18.6), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 The last of the Pizarro brothers is executed
Conflict between Gonzalo Pizarro and the latest officially appointed governor of Peru, Pedro de la Gasca, reached a climax in 1548 when Gasca’s forces crossed the Apurimac River to confront the Pizarrists who were advancing from Cuzco. The formidable forces of the king caused many of Pizarro’s men to defect, which eventually caused Pizarro himself to surrender. The following day he was executed and his head taken to Lima to be placed on a marble column with the inscription: ‘This is the head of the traitor, Gonzalo Pizarro, who opposed the imperial army and was defeated in the Valley of Jaquijahuana’.
Plate 21 (15.6×18.9), from Part VI(g), first published in 1596 with Latin text, also in 1597 with German text: $100 view print
 A Dutch and Spanish battle at sea off Lima
On the evening of 17th July, 1615, Spilbergen’s Dutch fleet encountered the powerful fleet of the Spanish, under the command of Roderigo de Mendoza, off the coast of Peru near Lima. The Spanish were eager to confront the Dutch, even though it was becoming dark. The battle began about ten o’clock in the evening and the two flagships are shown in the foreground. ‘A’ represents the Spanish admiral’s ship and ‘B’ the Dutch admiral’s.
Ap. Plate 8 (15.4×19.1), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with German or Latin text: $175 view print
 The Spanish fleet is defeated by the Dutch
The battle between the two fleets continued all night but by early morning of the following day several of the Spanish ships had been sunk or were ablaze and the rest in disarray, pursued by the Dutch. The descriptive text below describes the action and gives the names of the ships, indicated by letters.
Ap. Plate 9 (15.2×19.1), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with both German or Latin text: $175 view print
 Spilbergen’s fleet reaches Huarmey
The town of Huarmey was situated about 150 miles north of Lima. It was conveniently located for ships because there was a natural harbour nearby with a permanent supply of fresh water. The Dutch went ashore to replenish their stocks but they had to carry the water in barrels from the lake to their boats, marked (B). Meanwhile, they took over the old castle, (A) and sent a force of Soldiers, (G) to the town of Huarmey to find food. However, some Spanish horsemen, (H) saw them coming and rode off, probably to report their landing.
Ap. Plate 11 (15.2×19.0), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with both German and Latin text: $175view print
 Spilberben’s fleet reaches Paita
On 8th August 1615, Spilberben’s fleet anchored off Paita, on the northern coast of Peru. The following day 300 men went ashore, (A) and, with the help of gunfire from three of their ships, attacked the city (C). The Spanish soon gave up the battle for the town and retreated, (B). (Ref. 61 claims it was the Dutch that retreated.) The large bird in the foreground is suppose to be an Andean condor, with a nine foot wing-span which the Dutch caught on an island, just off the coast, called Lobos de Tierra, near Lambayeque. The natives of those parts use to go fishing in small balsa wood rafts, either with sails, (D), or without sails, (E).
Ap. Plate 12 (15.3×19.2), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with both German and Latin text: $175view print
 Another Dutch fleet reaches Lima
In 1624 a heavily armed Dutch fleet sailed from the Juan Fernandez Islands to Lima. The leader of the fleet, Jacob l’Hermite, was in such poor health that he had to hand over command to Admiral Jacobson. The fleet anchored outside the harbour near the island of San Lorenzo (‘I. de Lima’). The port was full of Spanish ships and too well protected for a direct confrontation so, on the night of 11th May, the Dutch carried out a daring and devious plan.
Page 30 (15.1×17.5), from Part XIV(g), first published in 1630 with German text, also Page 108 from Part XIII(g), published in 1634 with Latin text: $150view print
 The Dutch fleet attacks the Spanish at Lima
At about midnight the Dutch started an attack to the north of Lima, which drew the attention of the Spanish away from the harbour. Meanwhile, twelve well-armed rowing boats with a small cannon and a large quantity of explosives rowed directly towards the harbour. They managed to set fire to 30 to 40 Spanish vessels but about seven of the Dutch were killed and fifteen wounded in the process. When, through the morning mist, the Dutch saw several Spanish ships ablaze drifting towards their fleet, they took refuge behind the island of San Lorenzo. On 13th they took possession of the island with the intention of preventing all cargo ships from getting in or out of the harbour of Lima.
Page 35 (15.1×17.6), from Part XIV(g), first published in 1630 with German text, also Page 112 from Part XIII(g), published in 1634 with Latin text: $150 view print
 The Dutch burn the town of Guayaquil
From Lima, two of l’Hermite’s fleet sailed north until they reached the gulf of Guayaquil in Ecuador. Nearby was the island of Puná where they found three Spanish ships, two of which they set ablaze and captured the other one. Then they sailed up river to the town of Guayaquil, which was well fortified and defended by a strong garrison. Although, after a hard battle, they broke through, they could not hold the town with so few soldiers, so they set fire to it. Being the principal port for the province of Quito, it contained many fine buildings and beautiful furnishings, most of which were destroyed in the fire.
Page 36 (15.1×17.4), from Part XIV(g), first published in 1630 with German text, also Page 113 from Part XIII(g), published in 1634 with Latin text: $150