The discovery of the Magellan Strait
Here, rich in symbolism, is shown the great Portuguese explorer, Ferdinand Magellan, navigating the dangerous waters of the channel that bears his name. On 21st October 1520 Magellan’s ships entered the strait that separates the mainland of South America from the Tierra del Fuego, so named because the fires (shown here) that the natives had lit on the shores, were visible to Magellan through the mist and rain. Although he subsequently died en route, Magellan’s ship, the Victoria, went on to become the first ever to circumnavigate the globe. (This engraving derives from one published nine years earlier, see ref. 56.)
Plate 15 (14.7×19.7), from Part IV(g), first published in 1594 with both Latin and German text: $375view print
 The first Spanish colony at Buenos Aires
In 1534 Pedro de Mendoza was sent to colonise the Rio de la Plata. The following year several hundred began to colonise the present day site of Buenos Aires. At first, relations with the local Indians were amicable and there was enough to eat, then fighting broke out and the Spaniards were reduced to eating vermin, then the soles of their shoes. When three of the men stole and ate a horse, the commander found out and had them hanged. During the night, however, some of the other men cut the corpses to pieces and ate them too.
Plate 1 (13.4×17.8) with Latin text, or Ad. Plate 1 with German text, from Part VIII(g), first published in 1599: $175view print
 Revenge in Paraguay for the death of Juan de Ayolas
During Ayolas travels in Paraguay, he founded the fort at La Candelaria, near Corumba but later, while returning to Asunción, he and his entire party were killed by the Payaguá Indians. When Domingo Martinez de Irala was informed of the massacre he took revenge by torturing two innocent Indians until they confessed guilt. Then, for admitting the killings, tied them to a tree and burnt them to death.
Plate 2 (13.2×17.5), with Latin text, or Ad. Plate 2, with German text, from Part VIII(g), first published in 1599: $150view print
 Introducing the voyages of Cavendish, Drake and Hawkins
The title page refers to ‘Thomas Cavendish who left England in 1586 and returned in 1588 after a journey of thirteen thousand English miles, also the last voyage of Drake and Hawkins, who left England in 1595 to take the town of Panama in the West Indies’. Below the title is a miniature map, derived from Ortelius’s ‘Oval World’, which has here been set within a rectangular frame, decorated with flowers, fruits and parrots from the New World.
Title Page 2(7.8×14.0), with German text and on Page 78 with Latin text, from Part VIII(g), first published in 1599:$450
 Francis Drake reaches the Rio de la Plata
During his round-the-world voyage, Drake’s fleet of five ships reached the Rio de la Plata in April, 1578. One of the ships that were in poor repair had been slowing their progress, so Drake decided to burn her. Many of the local Indians came down to the beach to watch the spectacle. While Drake was engaged in conversation with his men, one of the Indians came from behind and snatched his hat with its golden ribbon, and ran away with it.
Plate 4 (13.4×17.6) with Latin text, or Ad. Plate 4 with German text, from Part VIII(g), first published in 1599: $175 view print
 Thomas Cavendish reaches Deseado
In December, 1586, during his round-the-world voyage, Cavendish’s fleet landed on the Atlantic coast of Patagonia, by some islands in the mouth of the river at Deseado. There they saw many seals and sea lions, whose heads and necks looked like lions with curly manes. It took blows to the head from several sailors to kill just one of these creatures such was their size. They said the meat tasted like mutton or veal. While the rear admiral’s boy was washing some clothes on Christmas Eve, Indians attacked him with arrows but they soon fled when the other sailors came to his rescue.
Plate 10 (13.4×17.4) with Latin text, or Ad. Plate 8 with German text, from Part VIII(g), first published in 1599: $125view print
 Cavendish reaches Morro Moreno
On 15th April, 1587, Cavendish’s fleet anchor at a place called Morro Moreno, on the coast of Chile. The Indians came down from the high cliffs to greet the voyagers and brought with them firewood and fresh water as a sign of friendship. Later the English were taken to their homes, which were made from two sticks in the ground and others laid across, covered with straw. The whole family, including children, lay underneath on animal skins. They were skilled fishermen who used a strange kind of boat, made of two animal-skins sewn together and, for buoyancy and strength, balloons fitted at each end which they blew up before each fishing trip.
Ad. Plate 11 (13.4×17.4), from Part VIII(g), first published in 1600 with German text and Plate 11 with Latin text: $150 view print
 Title Page to Part IX(g)
This introduces the ninth part of the Grands Voyages, which among other things describes the first Dutch voyages to South America and the East. Round the title panel are penguins from Patagonia and the llama, which was used as a pack animal to transport silver (see ). The figures to the left and right represent the indigenous peoples of the region (see ), and the character above represents a native of Guinea (see ), which the Dutch visited before crossing the Atlantic.
Title page (26.5×18.1) from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $100 view print
 Olivier van Noort reaches Deseado
In 1599, during his round-the-world voyage, van Noort’s fleet anchor in the mouth of the river at Deseado. When most of the crew went ashore, the featureless landscape seemed deserted, but they came across many Indian graves, decorated with feathers and arrows, and saw many deer (llamas), buffalo (?) and ostriches (rhea). When they returned to their boats they discovered three of the crew had been killed but they searched for the culprits and found no one.
Plate 6 (13.8×17.5) from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $100 view print
 Map: ‘Fretum Maghellannicum’
This map, with south shown to the top of the page, illustrates the dangerous channel discovered by Magellan in 1520 (see: ), which separates the mainland of South America from the Tierra del Fuego. The natives of the region, which embellish this map are taken from the illustrations to Weert’s voyage (see:  & ).
Map after Plate 25 (16.2×30.0), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and before second Title Page published in 1602 with Latin text. Also Map 3, from Part XIV(g), published in 1630 with German text and Map 3, from Part XIII(g), published in 1634 with Latin text: $275 view print
 The Dutch see giants in the Magellan Strait
While Sebald de Weert and his men were rowing to an island in the Magellan Strait, the spied seven strange-looking boats approaching, full of naked giants with reddish-brown skin and long hair. The Dutch shot and killed three of them with their muskets before they retreated to the shore. On the shore they pulled trees from the ground to protect them and waited with spears and stones at the ready for the Dutch to land. But the Dutch were wary of such gruesome creatures and kept away.
Plate 22 (14.7×19.0), form Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $100 view print
 The Dutch come across a strange woman in the Magellan Strait
Another of Weert’s experiences in the Magellan Strait occurred later, when he and his men were coming ashore. Further along the shore they noticed some Indians who abandoned their canoe and fled into the mountains. When they followed, they came across a woman with two small children. She went naked, save but a fur on her back and a necklace of snail shells. She would not accept food from the Dutch but took instead from the canoe a dead bird which she plucked and ate raw, while the blood dripped from her mouth and dripped onto her breasts.
Plate 23 (14.2×18.6), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text, and in 1602 with Latin text: $100 view print
 The Dutch catch penguins in the Magellan Strait
Before departing the Magellan Strait in 1599, the Dutch needed to stock up with food. On an island in the Magellan Strait they discovered a large colony of strange birds, called penguins, so they called it Penguin Island (Isla Magdalena). The bird was about the size of a large goose, weighing about 12lbs. It had a black and white stomach, with webbed feet and no wings to speak of. It could swim like a fish but on land waddled along upright. There were so many of them on this island that the Dutch killed about nine hundred of them, which took twenty-five boat trips to load aboard their ship.
Page 25 (14.7×18.4), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text, and in 1602 with Latin text: $100view print
 The Dutch become stranded in the Magellan Strait
While the Dutch were killing the birds on Penguin Island, there was a great storm and the waves damaged their boat so badly that it was wrecked. After the storm they gathered round and prayed for strength to cope with their disaster, then they gathered together the remains of their boat to try to repair it. While they were doing so they noticed an Indian woman hiding from them in one of the penguin’s holes. They also discovered a dead man with a feathered head-dress with his hands tied behind his back.
Page 24 (13.9×18.2), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text, and in 1602 with Latin text: $100 view print
 Map: ‘Tijpus Freti Magellanici’
On 26th March, 1615, Spilbergen’s fleet entered the Magellan Strait. His experiences and observations are decoratively illustrated in this map. On one of the ships there was a mutiny and it left the fleet (A), meanwhile the other five ships entered the strait (B). Later they were attacked by Indians with clubs (D) but met others who spoke in a strange tongue (F) and to whom they gave wine and during their exploits, they found many berries (G), penguins and other birds (I).
Map on Plate 2 (15.5×40.5), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with German or Latin text: N/A
 Map: ‘Descripcion del Audiencia de los Charcas’
Here, shown in outline is most of Bolivia and the northern coast of Chile, including also Arica. Arica being the port to which silver was transported down from Potosí (see: ). The whole region was set up as an Audiencia under Spanish rule in 1599. Although covering some of the most inaccessible terrain in all South America, much of this territory was explored, including Santa Cruz, over the Eastern Cordillera.
Map 12 (15.3×16.7), from Part XII(g), first published in 1623 with German text and in 1624 with Latin text: N/A
 Map: ‘Descripcion de la Provincia de Chile’
This map covers the central section of Chile between latitudes 30° and 45° south. Although much of this territory was first explored by Diego de Almagro, who gave names to a number of places along the remote coastline, he returned to Peru disillusioned and embittered at not having found anything worth plundering. (Note: south is to the right of the map.)
Map 13 (10.2×24.6), from Part XII(g), first published in 1623 with German text and in 1624 with Latin text: N/A
 Introduction to Oliver van Noort’s voyage
Noort was the first Dutchman to circumnavigate the globe. In command of his four ships, he left Rotterdam in Holland on 13th September 1598 (de Bry says in July), following the coast of Africa southwards, then crossing the Atlantic at the equator to Brazil. The fleet followed the coast south, reaching the Magellan straits in November. By February of the following year they had passed into the Pacific and were eastbound for Indonesia, arriving home again on 26th August 1601. To the left of the medallion portrait of van Noort is a native of Capul, and to the right is a native of the Magellan Straits.
Title Page 3 (9.5×14.6), from Part IX(g), first published in 1602 with German and Latin text: $150 view print
 The Dutch fight with Indians in the Magellan Strait
While Noort’s fleet was in the Magellan Straits, the Dutch visited an island near Cape Nassau. It was inhabited by Fuegian Indians who threw penguins at the Dutch from a high cliff and shot arrows at them as they advanced up the beach, before retreating into a cave. A fierce battle took place at the entrance to this cave and when all the natives had been killed, the Dutch found a number of terrified women and children, even animals at the back of the cave, which was evidently where they had all been living.
Ad. Plate 7 (13.8×18.6), from Part IX(g), first published in 1602 with German or Latin text: $100 view print
 Noort’s fleet reaches the Island of Moch
On 3rd March 1600, the Dutch fleet anchored off the Island of Mocha, near Concepción in Chile. The islanders sat on wooden stumps and watched the Dutch landing. Then they took them to their houses and offered them chicha. This was a drink, prepared by the old women who gathered together to chew up a certain fruit which they then spat into a communal bowl. Then it was left to ferment for a whole year. On certain feast-days they would gather and, while drinking to excess, they would listen to a group member, sitting on a pole playing a flute.
Ad. Plate 8 (13.6×17.4), from Part IX(g), first published in 1602 with German or Latin text: $150 view print
 Spilbergen’s voyage round the world
This introduces Spilbergen’s round-the-world voyage. On 8th August 1614, he set out from Holland in command of six ships for their memorable voyage. Neptune is shown here supporting Spilbergen’s ship and in the background is a sea battle between the Dutch and the Spanish, typical of those engaged in during their three-year voyage.
Title Page 2 (9.6×17.6), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with German or Latin text: $175 view print
 The Dutch visit Isla Mocha
Spilbergen’s fleet anchored off the island of Mocha on 24th April 1615, fifteen years after Noort’s landing. The crew went ashore in several small rowing boats (A), and offered to barter with the Indians for axes and knives (B). The locals, who were simply dressed (K), brought fruit, chicken and sheep (G)*. Later the Dutch entertained the inhabitants of the island on the beach with music, played by flutes and drums (D). While four of the ships anchored some distance off-shore (I), one of them came in (H), in case of danger.
*The sheep had humps on their backs, like camels, so were probably llamas or alpacas.
Ap. Plate 3 (15.2×19.0), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with German or Latin text: $175 view print
 Spilbergen’s fleet visits the island of Santa María
On 29th May, 1615, Spilbergen’s fleet anchored further north, off an island called Santa María that was separated by a narrow stretch of water (A), from Punta Lavapié on the mainland. Four of the ships (I) anchored in the bay, while the fifth (H) anchored closer. The Dutch went ashore in small boats (f), where they saw Spanish soldiers on horseback (B), so they arranged themselves for battle (C). There were several confrontations (E), during which many Dutchmen died but they still managed to burn the town of Santa María in the process (D).
Ap. Plate 4 (15.2×19.1), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with German or Latin text: $175 view print
 Spilbergen’s fleet visits Concepción
About forty miles along the coast, north of Santa María, is Concepción. Spilbergen anchored his fleet (D) in the bay, near the island of Quiriquina (B) on 3rd June, 1615, and fought with about two hundred Spanish soldiers and a number of Indians, guarding the town of Concepción (C)*. In the mêlée, the Dutch eventually managed to set fire to the town. While they were there, however, they discovered many wild horses (E) and noted the simple attire of the Indians (F).
*The text refers to Concepción as an island but it is, in fact, some distance inland. As illustrated, the location corresponds more closely to the town of Tomé.
Ap. Plate 5 (15.4×19.1), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with German or Latin text: $175 view print
 Spilbergen’s fleet visits the town of Valparaíso*
The Dutch fleet sailed north and, on 12th June, 1615, they reached the town of Valparaíso*. The natives were dressed as shown (I). The fleet (D) anchored conveniently in the bay and there they encountered a Spanish ship which they shot at many times. It eventually caught fire and ran aground on rocks (C). The Dutch then landed in small boats, (H) and met up with many Spanish soldiers on horseback (F). Nevertheless, they managed to set fire to, and burn some of the Spanish houses, (G).
*In reality, probably the town of S. Jacob (Santiago), which is about eighty miles by road from Valparaíso.
Ap. Plate 6 (15.2×19.1), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with German and Latin text: $175 view print
 Spilbergen’s fleet visits Quintero
On 13th June, 1615, Spilbergen’s fleet entered the beautiful Bay of Quintero (A), and anchored there (C). Again the Dutch went ashore (G) to fetch water. They noticed more wild horses (H) and Indians dressed as shown (I). Close to the beach the Dutch built a crescent-shaped rampart (B) and positioned their troops to the south (F), to protect them against the Spanish while they collected the water. Nevertheless, the Spanish on horseback carried out raids daily against them (E), so as to disrupt their operations, and the Dutch were forced to counter attack.
Ap. Plate 7 (15.3×19.1), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with German or Latin text: $175 view print
 The introduction to Wilhelm Schouten van Hoorn’s voyage
This shows the honoured place Schouten, along with Magellan, were given among the other navigators: Drake, Noort, Cavendish and Spilbergen, to South America. Here, his medallion portrait is seen next to Magellan’s for his pioneering discovery of a way to the East round Cape Horn, named after the little town of Hoorn, from which he came. The double-hemisphere world map marks his round the world track, from Holland with le Maire in 1615. This discovery was kept secret by the Dutch, until mid 1618 by prohibiting the publication of his voyage. This must therefore be one of the earliest maps to show his discovery.
Title Page 1 (16.9×20.4), from Part XI(g), first published in 1619 with German text and Plate 1 in 1620 with Latin text: N/A view print
 Schouten and le Maire land at Deseado
On 8th December 1616, they reached Rio Deseado, where they stayed to carry out repairs and stock up with food and water. While laid up, the Dutch saw some strange things, including a burial ground, where they uncovered skeletons, up to twelve feet in length, the skulls of which could be worn like helmets. The caught and ate sea lions and many kinds of birds, including penguins, and in the mountains they came across many deer-like animals with long necks (llamas?) and ostriches (rheas). They also saw a stone shaped naturally into a fork, which seemed to have been carved with great effort by men.
Ap. Plate 20 (19.1×15.2), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with German or Latin text: $175 view print
 Map: Schouten’s route round Cape Horn
After clearing the le Maire Straits, they saw through the mist: ‘high craggie land, thousands of whales and sea-mews. That night we went southwards, with waves of billowes out of the south-west and very blew water, whereby we judged and held for certaine that we had great deep water to loeforward from us, nothing doubting but that it was the great South-sea, whereat we were exceeding glad to think that we had discovered a way, which until that time was unknown to men …’. On 29th January, 1616, they rounded the Horn.
This map appeared the same year as a slightly less detailed inset to a similar one in Spilbergen’s ‘Oost ende …’ (ref.53) to which it probably owes it origin.
Plate 2 (map) (16.7×20.2), from Part XI(g), first published in 1619 with German or Latin text: $350 view print
 Map: ‘Tabula Hydrographica Maris Australis …’
After rounding the Horn, Schouten and le Maire headed north-west until, on 1st March 1616, they reached the Juan Fernandez Islands in latitude 33° south. After ten days ashore, they headed out across the Pacific, towards New Guinea. This map shows their track.
Map 1 (16.6×40.2), from Part XI(g), first published in 1619 with German and Latin text: N/A
 This introduces l’Hermite’s voyage round the world
The Dutch fleet set sail from Holland in 1624, under the command of Admiral Jacques l’Hermite, for their voyage round the world. The small oval world map is of particular interest because it ‘shows correctly parts of the western coastline of the continent of Australia’ (ref. 49, p 339).
Title Page (70.0×12.9), form Part XIV, published in 1630: N/A
 Chart drawn by the Nassau Fleet in Tierra del Fuego
L’Hermite’s fleet reached the Tierra del Fuego. Because of bad weather, inexperience and bad compass readings, they anchored in a bay, which they called ‘Nassawische Voerde’ (Nassau Bay) on 17th February 1624. From here the vice-admiral explored a bay, Schapenham Bay, which was named after him. Cape Horn is perhaps more accurately depicted here than any previously.
Page 21 (Map) (15.1×17.2), from Part IV(g), first published in 1630 with German text, and at Page 99 from Part XIII(g), published in 1634 with Latin text: $250 view print
 The inhabitants of the Tierra del Fuego
The survivors of l’Hermite’s voyage reported that the inhabitants of this beautiful island were well proportioned and a similar height to Europeans. They had long black hair and sharp teeth, and painted themselves red and white all over. The women wore strings of shells round their necks and leather girdles, and apart from animal skins, went naked. Their huts were made from tree-trunks, round and pointed at the top with earth on the outside. They were dug two or three feet into the ground. Inside, they kept their weapons: bows and arrows, spears, stone knives and fishing tackle. They were excellent fishermen, whose boats resembled gondolas made from tree trunks, about sixteen feet long and two feet wide.
Page 23 (14.6×17.3), from Part XIV(g), first published in 1630 with German text and on Page 120, from Part XIII(g) in 1634 with Latin text: $175 view print
 L’Hermite’s fleet reaches the Juan Fernandez Islands
After rounding the Horn, the Dutch fleet sailed north-east and landed on the more easterly island of the Juan Fernandez on 5th April 1624. On the north-east of this island they found safe anchorage, near a peaceful valley covered in clover. The island was uninhabited but they found fresh water, fruit and plenty of fish. Here they prepared to make attacks on the Spanish settlements along the west coast of South America.
Page 26 (12.3×18.0), from Part XIV(g), first published in 1630 with German text, and on Page 104, from Part XIII(g) in 1634 with Latin text: $175