[187] Map: ‘Descripcion del Audiencia del Nuevo Reino’

This simple outline map, drawn about 1570 by Juan López de Velasco, shows the Spanish courts in the northern part of Colombia, including also the ‘lake’ of Maracaibo in present-day Venezuela. This shows that already a number of Spanish settlements had already been established along the coast, including the commercially important Cartagena, and along the banks of the river Magdalena, here called the ‘Rio Grande’, and its tributaries.

Map 9 (17.5×20.0) from Part XII(g), first published in 1623 with German text and in 1624 with Latin text: N/A

[189] A typical Indian market at Cartagena

The natives of the province of Cartagena had plenty of fruit, fish, salt and peppers, which they exchanged for other necessities of life. In times of peace, the natives of that province had a weekly market where a variety of merchandise could be traded. Fruit, corn, wood, feathers, golden necklaces, various jewels, emeralds and many other things that originated in those parts could be exchanged. Before the Spanish arrived, they used a barter system and were always modest in their consumption of food and drink.

Plate 10 (16.0×19.7), from Part V(g), first published 1595 with German or Latin text: $175 view print

[188] How the Indians of Colombia prepared for war

Those Indians who lived in the valley of Tunis (Barranquilla?), near the great river (Magdalena?), which runs between Cartagena and Santa Marta, were called Caribs (Arawaks?). They were fierce fighters and carried their war-god, Chiappam, to battles in which they would used poisonous arrows and spears. They smeared themselves with the blood of their enemy and ate their flesh. When their chiefs died they were buried with jewels, food and drink and the Spanish subsequently found riches buried in the tombs there.

Plate 11 (15.0×19.0), from Part V(g), first published in 1595 with German or Latin text: $100 view print

[183] Vespucci lands on Colombian shores

Perhaps the first Europeans ever to reach Colombian shores where Alonso de Ojeda and his crew during their voyage in 1499-1500. Amerigo Vespucci was reputed to be among them. Many Indians along the shoreline of Cabo de la Vela, in the province of Cuquibacao where they were believe to have landed, fled into the woods. The Spanish followed them and soon came across a settlement where many strange creatures were being prepared for a meal, including ‘horrible snakes with feet and wings’ (iguanas?). The Indians were very hospitable to the visitors and even offered them their womenfolk with such persistence that the visitors found these offers hard to refuse.

Plate 4 (14.9×17.6), from Part X(g), first published in 1618 with German text and in 1619 with Latin text: $250 view print

[186] Indians are attacked near Cartagena

When the governor of Cartagena, Alonso de Ojeda, led a party of Spanish soldiers into the interior to search for gold, they were attacked by Indians with such ferocity that the intruders were forced back to the sea with the loss of seventy-five lives. Soon after this incident, Nicuessa’s fleet arrived at Cartagena with reinforcements and a combined army marched silently through the night to take revenge on the Indians. They burnt their village at dawn and many of the Indians who tried to escape were captured or killed by the Spanish who had blocked all the escape routes. Others simply threw themselves into the flames to avoid capture.

Plate 18 (16.1×19.8), from Part V(g), first published in 1594 with German or Latin text: $150 view print

[190] Cartagena is destroyed by the French

A Spanish sailor, who in 1536 was convicted and flogged for some trivial offence in Cartagena, sought his revenge. Having returned to Spain, he subsequently crossed into France and sailed with five French ships back to Colombia. At the dead of night he guided a hundred men ashore to loot and burn the harbour town of Cartagena. The Spaniard who had previously been flogged, found the judge who had convicted him and stabbed him to death. The rest of the party, meanwhile, killed many of the Spaniards at will and others whom they had captured were ransomed for 150,000 ducats.

Plate 8 (15.4×19.3), from Part V(g), first published in 1595 with German or Latin text: $100 view print

[191] Francis Drake attacks Cartagena

On 9 February 1586, Drake’s fleet entered the harbour at Cartagena. They immediately began to set fire to the weakly guarded town but a ransom of 107,000 ducats saved the remainder of the buildings. Although they remained in Cartagena for ten weeks, they gained little else of value and many of the crew became sick and depressed at the prospect of an impending counter attack from a Spanish armada. Before this happened, Drake’s fleet left for Virginia on 24th April, with many Negroes, Turks and Moors.

Plate 8 (15.3×21.2) with Latin text, or Ad. Plate 8 with German text, from Part VIII(g), first published in 1599: $375