Map: ‘Descripcion de las Indias de Mediodia’
Originally drawn in manuscript about 1570, this simple outline map of South America shows the extent of knowledge of the coastal contours and major river systems at the time. Although the Equator and Tropic of Capricorn are quite well placed, the Meridian of Demarcation, here called ‘Meridiano de la Demarcacion’, is too far east. This was a longitude line settled at the Treaty of Tordesillas by Papal Decree between Spain and Portugal over how South America should be divided up between the two monarchies. The map, being of Spanish origin, has shifted the line of demarcation to the east, with Portugal allocated a diminutive Brazil.
Map 7 (20.1×17.4), from Part XII(g), first published in 1623 with German text and in 1624 with Latin text: N/A view print
 Title Page to Part Three
This introduces the volume describing ‘the wild and incredible life-style of the inhabitants of Brazil’. De Bry based his illustrations on the text from Jean de Léry’s 1578 publication [Ref. 21] and the text from Hans Staden’s 1557 publication [Ref. 35]. Both men had visited Brazil and gained first-hand experience of the country and particularly of the terrifying Tupí Indians.
Title Page (31.0×21.0), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, and in 1593 with German text. (It also formed the basis for the title page to Part VII(g), first published in 1597 with German text, and in 1599 with Latin text): $100view print
 The siege of Iguaraçu
After eighty-four days at sea Pintado’s ship, with Staden aboard, reached the coast near Recife. They were asked to help get supplies to the Portuguese in the nearby fort at Iguaraçu, which was being besieged by Indians. Staden went by river with some men in a canoe to Itamaracá for help. Although the Indians tried to block the river with trees, they eventually managed to get back with supplies and saved the lives of ninety Christians.
Pages 7 & 122 (15.8×19.3), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also page 5 in 1593 with German text: $100view print
 The Portuguese fight the French near Recife
After the siege at Iguaraçu, the Portuguese, with Staden aboard, sailed on to the harbour at Petyguaras about forty miles away, where they hoped to load on board a cargo of brazil wood. On arrival they came across a French ship loading the brazil wood onto their ship. When they tried to apprehend it, the French retaliated by shooting and damaging the main mast of the Portuguese ship.
Pages 10 & 96 (15.8×19.5), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also page 7 in 1593 with German text: $100view print
 The Portuguese reach the Island of Santa Catarina
Staden’s second voyage to Brazil in 1549 sighted an island in latitude 28° south, on St. Catherine’s Day. The galleon dropped anchor and Staden, with some of the sailors, went ashore and found an empty hut with a large wooden cross, on which was written the words ‘those who arrive on his majesty’s service should fire a gun and they will get more information’. This they did and soon five canoes with Indians and a Portuguese man arrived. He explained that this place was called Florianópolis and that he had been sent there from Asunción to plant cassava for the ships that passed that way.
Page 18 (16.2×19.7), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also page 13 in 1593 with German text: $100view print
 Hans Staden returns for the rest of the crew
The galleon remained anchored off the island of Santa Catarina without news for three days. Then the crew saw a canoe full of Indians approaching. At first they were alarmed but then they saw Staden aboard. He called out to them that the other sailors on the island were safe and that they should follow the canoe into the harbour at Florianópolis and come ashore.
Pages 14 and 21 (16.2×19.7), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also page 10 in 1593 with German text: $100 view print
 Staden is shipwrecked near São Vicente
From Florianópolis the ship sailed northwards, eventually running into a fierce storm. On trying to land at an unknown harbour, their ship was wrecked and many of the crew had to cling to floating debris before being washed ashore. Eventually they reached the nearby settlement of Itanhaém on the island of São Vicente, from where Staden later became a gunner at the fort of Bertioga, near the port of Santos.
Pages 24 and 26 (16.4×19.9), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also page 16 in 1593 with German text: $100 view print
 Staden is captured by the Indians
In 1552, while Staden was out hunting with his guide, not far from the fort at Bertioga, he found himself surrounded by shouting Indians. Although the guide escaped, Staten was captured and his clothes were torn off. The Indians began biting their arms in anticipation of their eating him, then soon began quarrelling among themselves over to whom he belonged. Eventually they took him with them in their canoes to their village for their womenfolk to torment.
Page 34 (16.2×19.7), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, also page 22 in 1593 with German text: $100view print
 The Portuguese attempt to free Staden
While Staden was in captivity he was taken to an island with the Indians to collect bird feathers. On the way back, while passing near the fort of Bertioga, the Indians forced him to stand up in the canoe, so that the Portuguese would see him and hold their fire.
Page 37 (16.2×19.7), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also page 24 in 1593 with German text: $100 view print
 Staden reaches the village of Ubatúba
The Indian village where Staden was held captive was called Ubatúba. It consisted of seven communal huts, surrounded by cleverly arranged fences, within a circle of stakes. When the men-folk returned with Staden, they left him to their women and disappeared into one of the huts to drink and celebrate his captivity. The women began dancing around their captive excitedly and started screaming abuse at him. They wanted to cut Staden’s beard off but he said he would die with it on, so they left him, saying they were not ready to kill him yet.
Page 41 (16.1×19.6), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also page 27 in 1593 with German text: $100 view print
 How the Indian women tease their captives
The Indian women led their captive, Staden, into the middle of the hamlet. Then they decorated his head with feathers and his legs with rattles. After forming a circle round him and began singing, they forced him to dance to their rhythms. When they became tired of this game, they tied his legs together so he was forced to hop about the village. This caused them much amusement and they cried: ‘look, here comes our food, hopping towards us.’
Page 43 (15.9×19.4), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also page 29 in 1593 with German text: $100view print
 Staden forecasts an Indian attack
Staden claimed he could tell the future and told the Indian chief, who lived in the nearby village of ‘Arirab’ (probably Cairussú). He predicted an attack from rival Indians and, sure enough, some time later the Tupinikin Indians did attack. Staden asked for, and was given, a bow with arrows to defend the hamlet. During the attack he looked for the opportunity to escape and join the attackers, who he knew were friendly with the Portuguese. Unfortunately, he never got the opportunity before the attackers went away.
Page 52 (16.2×19.7), from Part III(g), first printed in 1592 with Latin text, also page 35 in 1593 with German text: $100 view print
 A Portuguese ship comes to look for Staden
When a boat from the nearby fort of Bertioga came by to look for Staden. He told the Indians that his brother was probably aboard, looking for him. The Indians sent a canoe to speak to the Portuguese but when the sailors asked about Staden, they were told the Indians had no knowledge of him, so they went away assuming he must be dead.
Pages 56 & 68, (16.0×19.4), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also pages 37 & 45 in 1593 with German text: $100view print
 Staden tries to get aboard a French ship
When a French ship from Rio de Janeiro, in search of brazil wood, peppers, parrots and monkeys passed by, Staden attempted to get aboard. Having escaped from the Indians, he swam out and begged to taken aboard but the sailors refused him. Dejectedly, he had to return eventually to the shore and the waiting Indians. In fear of his life, he managed to explain the incident away to them by saying he had swam out to beg the sailors for food and other supplies for them but that they had refused. They seemed to believe he was their ally after all.
Page 47 (15.7×19.0), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also page 50 in 1593 with German text: $100view print
 The Tupinambá Indians spend a night on São Sebastiano
The Tupinambá Indians planned to attack their rivals, the Tipiniki who lived near the fort at Bertioga and were friendly to the Portuguese. They went in 38 canoes and took Staden with them. The night before the attack they camped on the island of São Sebastiano and before going to sleep, they performed a strange dance during which they held little figures of their idols in their hands. The next day they sat about their fire eating stewed fish and recalling their dreams for clues as to the outcome of the forthcoming battle.
Pages 66 & 120 (15.7×19.3), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also page 52 in 1593 with German text: $100view print
 The battle between rival Indians near Bertioga
On approaching, the Tupinambá spied their enemy, the Tupiniki, in five canoes in the distance. They chased them for four hours before catching up. The battle lasted about two hours, during which time both sides howled at each other like wolves and threatened each other with teeth they had extracted from previous victims. Both sides were so fierce that they fought until the last drop of blood had flowed from their veins.
Pages 78 & 208 (16.0×19.9), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also pages 54 & 189 in 1593 with German text: $100 view print
 Indian cannibalism
During this battle, a number of the Tipiniki Indians were captured and killed. On the way back to their settlement at Ubatúba, the Tupinambá camped near the mountains of Taquarussu. There they killed, cut up, roasted and ate some of their enemy. The chief offered some flesh to Staden who refused it, saying ‘even animals don’t eat their own kind’, to which the chief replied: ‘I am a jaguar, it tastes good’.
Pages 80 & 89 (16.1×19.6), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also page 56 in 1593 with German text: $100 view print
 Further Indian cannibalism
While Staden was still in captivity, he witnessed more cannibalism. On of their captives who fell ill was killed. Because the Tupinamba Indians said he was too ugly, they cut off the head and threw it away. They also threw away his intestines because they thought it might have been infected, but the rest was distributed among the village huts before being roasted and enthusiastically eaten.
Page 71 (15.7×19.4), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also page 48 in 1593 with German text: $100 view print
 A typical Tupí village
At that time, the Tupínamba Indians were numerous along the coastal regions from São Paulo to Rio de Janeiro. Typically they lived under a leader, in groups of about forty. Their huts, made from palm, were about fourteen feet by a hundred and fifty feet, and about twelve feet high. They built about seven of these in a group and surrounded them with a fence made from palm-tree planks with small holes in through which to shoot arrows. They placed skulls at the entrance to frighten their enemy and put a circle of stakes outside the palisade for added protection.
Page 106 (15.9×20.0), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also page 70 in 1593 with German text: $150view print
 A typical Tupí feast
Once a year they Indians from all the surrounding villages would get together for a feast. With decorative head-dresses, cloaks and belts of coloured feathers, three or four men would rattle their maracas, which they believed were the spirits talking to them. They also smoked long tubes with a plant called ‘petum’ [tobacco] in. Around these men hopped a circle of dancers on their left feet, with their right arms placed on their backs. As they did so they chanted words of encouragement to give them strength to defeat their enemy. [This is probably the first copperplate engraving ever to show tobacco smoking in Brazil.]
Page 228 (16.6×20.0), form Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also page 221 in 1593 with German text: $225 view print
 How the Tupí Indians prepare their drinks
The women prepared a drink by first boiling up the roots of the manioc plant. The young girls then chewed up this root and spat it back into the bowl of boiling water. After two days of fermentation they handed it round for the men to drink. Then they became intoxicated and danced or sat about the fire all night. There was also another drink, prepared in the same way, but made from ‘Turkish corn’. It was thick, white and opaque, and it looked like milk. There was also a red variety. Every month, the members of each hut prepared their own drinks, which made them merry and intoxicated.
Pages 112 & 174 (16.5×19.9), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also pages 75 & 150 in 1593 with German text: $150 view print
 Ritualistic preparations before killing
When the Tupí bring back a prisoner, the women tie a rope round his neck, decorate him with feathers, cut off his eyebrows and dance round him. Then they paint a both the prisoner’s head and a ‘killing stick’ [called an Iwera Pemme], cover it in glue and stick it all over with crushed grey eggshells. Then they hung up the ‘killing stick’ and danced round it. The night before the killing they leave their prisoner in an especially erected hut.
Page 124 (16.6×19.7), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, also page 83 in 1593 with German text: $100view print
 The ritual of the killing
On the day of the killing, the rope is untied from the prisoner’s neck, then put round his body and pulled tightly from both ends. A fire burns in front of the prisoner while the chief, ceremoniously passes the ‘killing-stick’ between the legs of the prisoner. He is then allowed to confront the other members of the tribe in order to boast about his own victories and is even given stones to throw at them, while they protect themselves with their shields. The chief, whose great honour it is to perform the killing, then clubs his victim to death with the ‘killing-stick’.
Pages 125 & 212, from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also pages 85 & 193 in 1593 with German text. Note: this plate has  printed on the verso: $100view print
 The Women who shed crocodile tears
It was a common practice for the prisoner, who was going to be killed, to be allowed to sleep with one of the women. Sometimes she bore him a child, which was cared for after his death. When he was killed, she felt obliged to shed a few tears but was said to be like the crocodile that was believed to cry a little before eating its victim. After the killing, she was given the privilege of cleaning the victim but when the corpse was cut up and cooked, she was usually the first to eat the flesh.
Pages 126 & 213 (16.1×19.6), from Part III(g), first published in 1592 with Latin text, also page 195 in 1593 with German text. Note: this plate has  printed on the verso: $100view print
 Cutting up the corpse
After the prisoner’s body had been cleaned and prepared for eating, it was painted white, then skinned. First the legs were cut off above the knees, then the arms. Each limb was detached and given to a different woman who had previously decorated herself with paint. Then, with the limbs, they would chase each other round the huts, which caused great amusement. Finally, the body was cut open down the spine and shared out, with the women taking the intestines.
Page 127 (16.1×19.6), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also page 86 in 1593 with German text. Note: this plate has  printed on the verso: $100view print
 A broth is made from the intestines
The women make a thick soup from the intestines and the head, then they shared it out among themselves and their children. After killing the prisoner, the chief gave himself a new name and scratched the top of his arm with an animal’s tooth so as to leave an honoured scar. Then he rested all day so that his arm did not loose its strength from dealing the deadly blow.
Page 66 & 128 (16.2×19.7), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also page 87 published in 1593 with German text. Note: this plate has  printed on the verso: $100view print
 How the Tupí Indians roasted their meat
The Indians set up a grill, consisting of four posts set in the ground. They were as thick as a man’s arm and had a fork at the top, across which sticks were laid to form a platform. The meat was then placed on this platform and a slow-burning fire lit underneath. It was not salted but left to roast for a day and a night, so it would not go bad. They often used the meat of a wild animal, common in the Brazilian forest, called a tapir.
Page 179 (16.4×19.8), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also page 155 in 1593 with German text: $100 view print
 The rituals for those that were dying
When one of the villagers was dying, the others would not feed or care for him but sang and danced as usual. Once he was dead, though, the women would start lamenting by howling like dogs or wolves. They held each other by the arms for support and continued their howling until the corpse was carried away for burial. Then they all joined together in praise of the dead and expressed their joy at being re-united again in the next life.
Pages 59 & 248 (16.5×19.8), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also pages 39 & 245 in 1593 with German text: $125 view print
 How the Indians believed the devil tormented them
The Tupí believed the souls of those who had been good during this life, lived on happily across the hills. But those who did not fight bravely were led away by the devil and lived on in eternal pain and horror. The fear of this happening to them was so powerful that they often saw the devil in the form of animals, birds or other horrifying creatures. Sometimes they imagined the devil was beating them and screamed for mercy. (The two Europeans in the foreground are Christians trying to convert them to their own beliefs.)
Page 223 (16.1×19.6), from Part III(g), first published in 1592, with Latin text, also page 215 in 1593 with German text: $150view print
 Cannibalistic rituals of the Tupí
Here a prisoner of the Tupinambá Indians is shown, decorated with feathers, before being beaten to death. After execution the corpse was washed, cooked, cut up and eaten. Elaborate rituals were performed from the moment of capture until the last ounce of flesh, blood and bone was finally disposed of, all in the name of similar atrocities committed by rival tribes against the Tupinambá.
Page 60 (13.8×15.6), from Part XIII(g), first published in 1627 with German text only: $175view print
 The Dutch fleet reaches Rio de Janeiro
In 1599 Oliver van Noort’s fleet reached an island in the natural harbour of Rio de Janeiro. On this island there was a town, as marked (c) and nearby a fortress (D), both of which had been built by the Portuguese. After their long voyage, they desperately needed fresh fruit but found only forty or fifty oranges on the island, then later, when they went ashore in rowing boats, many Indians appeared and started shooting arrows at them (A). Several Dutchmen were wounded and two captured but these men were later released in exchange for money.
Ad. Plate 3 (13.5×17.0) from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $175 view print
The Dutch convalesce on the island of Santa Clara
Many of the Dutch were in poor health after their Atlantic crossing and when they found an island to the north of Rio de Janeiro, called Santa Clara, (I. do Francez) they remained there for two weeks convalescing. During this time they ate fish and fresh fruit but two of them died and they had to permanently keep guard against attack from local Indians. Before continuing their journey south, they set fire to one of their ships, which had been too badly damaged to repair.
Ad. Plate 5 (12.7×16.7) from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $150 view print
 The Dutch are attacked at São Sebastiano
After following the coast of Brazil south they eventually reached the island of São Sebastiano, near São Paulo. There they put ten men ashore, who collect fresh water (B), wood for fires and wood to repair their boats (C) so many fresh fish that they could hardly pull in their nets (D). While engaged in these activities, they were suddenly attacked by Indians (A), who had been hiding in the forest. Six of them were killed and the remaining four were taken away as prisoners.
Ad. Plate 4, from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $150 view print
 Spilbergen’s fleet reaches Brazil
Sixteen years after Noort’s fleet reached Brazil, a more powerful Dutch fleet (O) arrived. It anchored at the harbour of São Vicente, near São Paulo but met with hostility by the Portuguese (B) and local Indians (Q). Nevertheless, the Dutch managed to burn down the church of Santa María and capture one of the Portuguese ships (M) but four of the Dutch were killed in the process (N). The text below the plate describes the scene with a key to places and events.
Ad. Plate 1 (15.1×19.1) from Part XI(g), first published in 1619: $275view print
 The Dutch attack the Portuguese at Salvador
When Philip II ascended the Portuguese throne, he ordered the seizure of all Dutch ships and their crew in Portuguese ports. This lead eventually to the Dutch West India Company, formed for the purpose of encouraging colonisation in Latin America. The Company’s first conquest came on 9th May 1624 when, under the command of Admiral Willekens, the Dutch fleet sailed into Baya de Todos os Sanctos and took control of the port. Meanwhile, Dutch troops under the command of Jan van Dorth, who had landed a few miles along the coast, lead an unopposed attack on the town. Once established, the Dutch tried to expand their influence in Brazil but the Portuguese fought back and the following year managed to expel them. The Dutch made two more attempts in 1627 to take the port, both of which failed.
Page 34/5 (second pagination) (18.9×36.1), from Part XIII(g), first published in 1627 with German text, and at Page 62/3 in 1634 with Latin text: N/A
 Map: ‘Das Norder Theil des Lands Brasilien’
The map, displayed on a roll above, shows the coastal contours, with place-names along the Brazilian coast near Recife, and below is a bird’s-eye view of the siege with ships and the movements of the troops. With the hope of taking control of the sugar trade in Brazil, the fleet of the Dutch West India Company attacked Recife on 5th February 1630. While the troops landed further north, the fleet, under the command of Admiral Lonq, tried to force an entrance to the harbour but his ships were repulsed by the Portuguese, under the command of Albuquerque. The siege lasted two weeks and in the end the Dutch finally broke through. The Portuguese, however, not wishing their rivals to benefit from their labours, burnt all their sugar warehouses and shipping, the loss of which was estimated at two million ducats.
Page 52/3 (35.5×44.5), from Part XIII(g), first published in 1627 with German text and at Page 36/7 in 1634 with Latin text: N/Aview print
 Views: ‘Olinda’ and ‘Olinda de Phernambuco’
Above, this shows a view of the town of ‘Olinda’, with two figures in the foreground displaying a cloth on which are displayed fourteen places by name. Below an offshore view shows the Dutch fleet attacking the harbour. While the Dutch fleet attacked the nearby harbour of Pernambuco, the majority of troops under the command of General van Waerdenburgh had landed on the beach of Pan Amarello, about six miles to the north of Olinda. Advancing towards the town they encountered little resistance and, with few casualties, were soon able to take control of the town. By the 3rd March 1630, all the resistance was over and the Dutch celebrated the capture of Olinda, Recife and the nearby island of Antonio Vaz. The celebrations were premature, however, as guerrilla fighting against the Dutch soon broke out which they were unable to put down.
Page 68/9 (34.5×44.5), from Part XIV(g), first published in 1630 with German text and in Part XIII(g) at Page 144/5 in 1634 with Latin text: N/A