The origin of Mexico City
The Indians of Mexico believed their god, Vitzliputzli, had prophesied them they would one day find their Promised Land. After journeying through the wilderness, they would discover an eagle with a bird in its claw in the branches of a ‘tunal’ tree (Prickly Pear), which grew out of a stone next to a river. Here they would put up a shrine to their god and build the city of Mexico. Then, every year the people would pay tribute to their chief by transporting a raft down the river on which grew maize and peas. Storks and geese would have their nests on this floating garden where their young could hatch out.
Plate 12 (14.7×18.8), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $225view print
 The journey of the Mexicans to find their home
Inspired by their god, Vizlipuzli, the Mexicans began wandering through the provinces of Aztlan and Teculhuacan in search of riches and fame in their Promised Land. Whenever they broke their journey, they built a shrine for their god, and planted corn for themselves. The leader of these wanderers was called Meri, from which derived the name Mexico. The journey of the Mexicans is similar to the flight of the Children of Israel leaving Egypt.
Page 133 (15.4×17.6), from Part XII(g), first published in 1624 with Latin text. (Part XII(g) with German text does not contain this plate): $175view print
 Mythology in the building of Mexico City
The Mexican people believed their god, Vizlipuzli, had told them they should build their city in the middle of a lake. This they did but encountered many hardships along the way. There were great stones to move and on one occasion the city caught fire.
Page 332 (15.4×17.8), from Part XII(g), first published in 1624 with Latin text. (Part XII(g) with German text does not contain this plate.): $175
 Plan of Mexico City
This plan is based on Bordone’s ‘Isolario’ (ref. 6), first published in 1528, which in turn was probably derived from sketches by Cortés. Some thought Mexico was the largest and most beautiful city in all the Americas. It was built on a lake from which the inhabitants collected salt for trading purposes, while drinking water was brought in by canals. There were three main access routes into the town. The town had markets in several squares on most days and at the time the population comprised about 4,000 Spanish and over 30, 000 Indians.
Page 48 (15.1×17.6), from Part XIV(g), first published in 1630 with German text, and Page 125 from Part XIII(g) in 1634 with Latin text: $350 view print
 How the Aztecs treat their dead
When an Aztec of distinction died, his corpse is laid out in a chamber so that his friends, followers and relations could go to pay their respects. Sometimes they would offer him presents to take with him on his journey after death.
The corpse was then ceremoniously carried in procession, accompanied by musicians, to be incinerated. A priest, dressed in devil’s outfit, would then burn the corpse, along with his living servants, of whom there were sometimes many. The ashes were then put in an urn and buried along with all the other presents.
Plate 5 (14.3×18.2), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $100 view print
 How the Aztecs hunt game
At dawn hunters would gather together in the town, accompanied with their bows, arrows and netting for hunting. Thy would then march out of town, blowing their horns and carrying an idol to the top of a hill where they would place it on an altar with great ceremony. Round the base of this hill they would place netting, then light fires. This would frighten deer, foxes and hares and they would become trapped in the netting where they were shot with arrows, or caught by hand.
Plate 6 (14.1×18.0), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $100 view print
 How the Aztec priests do penance
On certain days, the holy men of Mexico would gather around their god, Vitzliputzli. While playing shawms and sprinkling incense on their idol, their leader would pierce his foot with an awl and wash it in blood, while the others would flagellate themselves, or beat each other with stones as a penance for the sins of the common people.
Plate 7 (14.2×18.1), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $100view print
 Human sacrifice on the Round Hill of Skulls
On sacrificial days, the Mexicans would take a prisoner up the steps of the ‘Round Hill of Skulls’, where the high priest, with a feathered head-dress, would place a necklace over his head. Four men would then lift up the prisoner and break his back over the sacrificial stone. The high priests would then cut open his chest and pluck out his heart, offering it up to the sun, before throwing it into the idol’s face. The corpse was then left to roll down the steps.
Plate 8 (14.3×18.3), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $100view print
 The fate of certain prisoners
A certain person was selected and, at night he was held in a prison. He dined with the nobility and during the day was accompanied by guards. He could go wherever he wanted and he carried a whistle, so that when the commoners heard him coming, they would fall to their knees to show their respect as he passed by. After living in luxury like this for a whole year, he was tied to a stone by his ankle and, with sword and shield, forced to fight with a chosen priest. If he won the fight he was given complete freedom but if he lost he was skinned alive.
Plate 9 (14.3×18.0), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $100view print
 How the Aztecs dance
In and around the city of Mexico, the Indians enjoyed all forms of dancing. Some danced on ropes or on each other’s shoulders with such confidence that it seemed they were dancing on solid ground. They danced to the beat of drums or the rhythm of songs and everyone kept in time by stamping their feet. Their most common dance was called the ‘mitote’ in which even the chief himself participated.
Plate 11 (14.7×18.8), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $150view print
 How the Mexicans were provoked into fighting with their neighbours
The Indians of Coyoacán became envious of their neighbours, the Indians of Mexico City, because they were growing in prosperity. At first they just sneered at the women when they came to their markets. Then, one day, they invited some of the Mexican dignitaries to their feast. At first they treated them well but when it was time to leave, they forced them to wear women’s clothing and jeered at them in the streets as they went home. This provoked subsequent reprisals and the town of Coyoacán was eventually over run and defeated by the Mexicans.
Plate 13 (14.7×19.0), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $100view print
 Montezuma’s brother prefers death to disloyalty
During Montezuma’s reign, many Mexicans were captured after a fierce battle with the Chalco Indians. When the Calco found out that one of their prisoners was the brother of the great Montezuma, they asked him to become their leader. He said he would answer their request from a platform, on the top of a tall tree-trunk, erected in their central square. Thinking he was going to announce his answer in the affirmative, they erected the platform for him. From the top he declared that he would rather die than betray his own people. As proof of his intention he said he was going to jump to his death, which he duly did when his speech was over.
Plate 14 (14.7×18.5), from Part IX(g), first published in 1601 with German text and in 1602 with Latin text: $125view print
 A truce is agreed between the Mexicans and Tepanecas
After the Mexicans had fought against and killed many Tepanecas, a truce was agreed. The agreement was that the king of Azcapuzalco would receive one third of the town, along with its land, and the other two thirds was presented to the military leader, Tacaellel, along with other warriors who had fought bravely.
Page 130 (15.3×17.8), from Part XII(g), first published in 1624 with Latin text. (Part XII(g) with German text does not contain a copy of this plate.): $175view print
 A Spanish account of the discoveries in the Americas
This introduces a revised edition of Antonio de Herrera’s ‘Novis Orbis …’ (ref. 22) and is claimed in the title panel to contain: ‘A complete revelation of all the West Indian Countries, islands, sea coasts, rivers lakes, harbours and landing places, mountains, borders and divisions into provinces, including actual descriptions or the towns, market places, convents and monasteries, how many inhabitants they have and how high their incomes are, about the trade and business potential of each place …’. The title panel is surrounded by Mexican gods, the first king and a temple from Mexico, along with medallions of Columbus and Vespucci. Below, an outline map of the American continent, is revealed on a scroll by Magellan and Pizarro.
Title Page (29.1×19.2), from Part XII(g), first published in 1623 with German text and in 1624 with Latin text: N/Aview print
 Alvarado’s greed in Mexico City
Cortés and his men marched into and occupied Mexico City in 1520. Some time later Cortés left Alvarado in charge of his men. While the Indians were having a festival, the Spanish turned up to watch the ceremonies. On seeing the valuable jewellery that the Indians were displaying for the occasion, the Spanish abandoned all thoughts of honour and went about taking whatever they could lay their hands on. During this process many old and defenceless Indians were killed.
Plate 18 (15.3×19.0), from Part V(g), first published in 1595 with German or Latin text: $150view print
 Alvarado dies at Guadalajara
The Chichimecs Indians had been terrorising the Spanish at Guadalajara for some time so, while Alvarado was on his way north to search for Cíbola, he was ordered to quell what became known as the Mistón Rebellion. While attacking the Chichimecs strong point on the top of a hill, they rolled down boulders and tree trunks, which caused Alvarado to be thrown from his mount and pinned beneath his horse as a result of which he subsequently died.
Plate 22 (15.3×19.0), from Part V(g), first published in 1595 with German or Latin text: $150view print
 Map: ‘Descripcion del Destricto del Audiencia de la Nueva Galicia’
This simple outline map covers the region roughly between latitudes 19° and 29° north, known at the time as New Spain. Some of the early Spanish settlements are marked but several of the names have now changed. Guadalajara, where Alavardo died (see  above), is shown just to the north of Lake Chapala.
Map 5 (15.9×22.7), from Part XII(g), first published in 1623 with German text and in 1624 with Latin text: $275view print
 Map: ‘Hispaniae Novae Sive Magnae’
Most of cartographic data contained in this map derives from Ortelius’s map of the same title, first published in 1579 in the Additamentum to his ‘Theatrum’. It extends inland from the west coast of Mexico, to include the city of Mexico and Gaudalajara (here called ‘Guaxacatecus’). The longitudes are based on a meridian through Toledo, suggesting a Spanish origin, yet the mass of place-names exceeds those in Ovedo, las Casas and López de Gomara put together, even though the bison vignette at least probably derives from a woodcut which first appeared in the latter. The vignettes and notes on the Indians’ hunting and eating habits, along with the vignette of five men in a canoe, are from Vaca’s epic journey.
Map (33.3×44.1) from Part V(g), first published in 1595, with German or Latin text: $750 view print
 Spilbergen lands at Acapulco
The Dutch had already captured many Spaniards and in October 1615, when their fleet reached Acapulco, they exchanged them for provisions. Near the town (H), there was a church (G) and a castle (F), well equipped with soldiers. Before anchoring in the harbour, the Dutch caught a wonderful fish (I). After going ashore, they began to negotiate with the Spanish (B) and both sides carried white flags. The Dutch agreed to release the prisoners in exchange for provisions, which were brought on donkeys (D), accompanied by Spanish on horsemen (K). They also brought oxen and sheep (E) for the Dutch.
Ap. Plate 13 (15.2×19.2), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620, with German or Latin text: $350view print
 Spilbergen’s fleet lands near Manzanillo
A few miles north of Manzillo is the natural harbour of Santiago, where Spilbergen’s fleet, marked (A), anchored. A small Spanish ship (B), which was keeping watch, warned the soldiers ashore of an imminent invasion. They came out of the woods (D) to repel the Dutch (E) when they landed. The Dutch fought back, at the same time taking care to guard their boats (G). Many men on both sides were killed in the battle (F), so the Dutch eventually sailed a few miles further north to another harbour, called Barra de Navidad, where they caught a strange fish (K), after which they went ashore to get fresh water from a nearby river (I).
Ap. Plate 14 (15.2×19.2), from Part XI(g), first published in 1620 with German or Latin text: $350view print
 Map: ‘Descripçion del Destricto del Audiençia de Nueva Espana’
This simple outline map, based on Juan López de Velasco’s manuscript, covers the southern part of present-day Mexico and the Yucatan peninsular. Some of the early Spanish settlements in that region are marked. To the lower left is Puerto de Acapulco, where Spilbegen exchanged Spanish prisoners for provisions (see above ), Puerto de Santiago, where the Dutch fought with the Spanish, and Puente de la Navidad, where they collected fresh water (see above ).
Map 4 (18.0×26.3), from Part XII(g), first published in 1623 with German text and in 1624 with Latin text: N/Aview print
 The Nassan fleet reaches Acapulco
On 20th October 1624, another Dutch fleet sighted the coast of New Spain lying to the north-east. A few days later they were within half a league of an island which lay before the port of Acapulco. By evening they had anchored within sight of a fort, which had been built by the Spanish the previous year on a promontory near the harbour. When the Dutch tried to exchange their ransom with the Spanish, their negotiations failed.
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 The Nassan fleet awaits the arrival of cargo ships at Acapulco
The Dutch remained anchored off Acapulco in the hope of capturing Spanish cargo ships returning from Manila. However, they were unable to find out their expected times of arrival and waited in vain. Short of fresh water, a week later, the Dutch under the command of Captain de Witte, went ashore at a place called Puerto del Marquez, about a league and a half from Acapulco. While they were taking in water, they were ambushed by the Spanish and were forced to flee to their boats in such haste that one of them was left ashore. At great risk to himself, the captain, returned to save him.
Page 41 (15.0×17.5), from Part XIV(g), first published in 1630 with German text, or Page 118, from Part XIII(g), first published in 1634 with Latin text: $350